Saturday, 13 July 2019

Biafra-Britain relations: Abstract, Saturday 13 July 2019

Herbert Ekwe-Ekwe

THERE IS DEFINITELY no subject in these past 53 years, i.e., since the 29 May 1966 Anglo-Nigeria launch date of the Igbo genocide, this foundational genocide of post-(European)conquest Africa, in which the critical institutions of the British state including, particularly, political establishment,  academiamediaoil industry, the church, have all converged, unproblematically, to support as the perpetration of the Igbo genocide. For Britain, this genocide to destroy Igbo people, one of Africa’s most talented and enterprising peoples, is its envisaged path, in the post 1939-1945 war epoch, to control the lives and fortunes of African peoples ad infinitumIgbo independence is therefore anathema to Britain (http://re-thinkingafrica.blogspot.co.uk/2015/10/herbert-ekwe-ekwe-conquerors-concord-in.html). Without this British central role in the execution of the genocide, the field/on-the-ground Fulani islamist/jihadist-led génocidaires in Nigeria, this brazenly indolent and sleazy anti-African peoples’ grouping immanently obsequious to the diktats of its bature overlords, cannot continue to commit this crime against humanity much longer – definitely, not beyond a few weeks. The restoration of Igbo independence will surely inaugurate a strategic reordering of Biafra-Britain relations across the board which will have far-reaching consequences on the rest of the African World and elsewhere.
(Andrew Hill Septet, “Compulsion” [personnel: Hill, piano; Freddie Hubbard, trumpet; John Gilmore, tenor saxophone; Cecil McBee, bass; Joe Chambers, drums; Renaud Simmons, conga, percussion; Nadi Qamar, percussion, African drums, thumb piano; recorded: Van Gelder Studio, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, US, 8 October 1965])

******Herbert Ekwe-Ekwe’s recently published books on the Igbo genocide are The longest genocide – since 29 May 1966 (2019) and co-author, with Lakeson OkwuonichaWhy #DonaldTrump is #great for #Africa (2018)

Twitter @HerbertEkweEkwe


Friday, 12 July 2019

In this week that Biafra commemorates the 52nd anniversary of the genocidist invasion of its country by Nigeria and Britain or these dual-genocidist states’ launch of phase-III of the Igbo genocide, a reminder of Igbo people’s vanguard mission in contemporary history


Herbert Ekwe-Ekwe

BEGINNING in the early 1930s to October 1960, the Igbo nation played the vanguard role in the campaign for restoration-of-independence to terminate 100 years of the British conquest and occupation of the multiplicity of states and peoples of southwestcentral Africa region which the conqueror contemptuously tagged “Nigeria” – the “n*****” area/land.

Britain responded with the genocide of the Igbo and employed its Fulani islamist/jihadist client-operatives on the ground, inveterately anti-African throughout their history and who consequently opposed the restoration-of-independence drive, to enforce this mass murder, this foundational genocide of post-(European)conquest Africa. For Britain, this genocide to destroy Igbo people, one of Africa’s most talented and enterprising peoples, is its envisaged path, in the post 1939-1945 war epoch, to control the lives and fortunes of African peoples indefinitely. 

The Anglo-Nigeria dual genocidists slaughtered 3.1 million Igbo or 25 per cent of the Igbo population during the course of 44 months, 29 May 1966-12 January 1970, phases I-III of the genocide. Tens of thousands additional Igbo have been murdered subsequently, phase-IV (beginning 13 January 1970), including the 3000 murdered by the fiendishly rabid Muhammadu Buhari regime since November 2015. Buhari had been installed in power in March 2015 by ex-US President Barack Hussein Obama, the first African-descent president in 233 years of the founding of the United States republic, and David Cameron, ex-British prime minister. Obama’s unconscionable support of the Igbo genocide is his ignoble presidential legacy.

THE Igbo have not only survived the genocide but are now in the vanguard to restore Biafra independence, the African peoples-centred state that at once effectuates African control of its destiny not seen for centuries and the collapse of the Anglo/European World anti-African “Berlin-states” or constellation of EuroConqueror league states dotted across Africa or the Nigéríanãs-of-inconsequence.
(John Coltrane Quartet, “Dusk-Dawn” [personnel: Coltrane, tenor saxophone; McCoy Tyner, piano; Jimmy Garrison, bass; Elvin Jones, drums; recorded: Van Gelder Studio, Englewoods CliffNJUS, 16 June 1965])

******Herbert Ekwe-Ekwe’s recently published books on the Igbo genocide are The longest genocide – since 29 May 1966 (2019) and co-author, with Lakeson OkwuonichaWhy #DonaldTrump is #great for #Africa (2018)

Twitter @HerbertEkweEkwe



Saturday, 6 July 2019

Year 53: Biafra before Brexit or 52nd anniversary of genocidist Nigeria/British invasion of Biafra and launch of phase-III of Igbo genocide


Herbert Ekwe-Ekwe

British mapped trails on the Igbo genocide

ON 6 JULY 1967, 
Nigeria expands the territorial range of its execution of the Igbo genocide, the foundational genocide of post-(European)conquest Africawhich it launched 14 months earlier, 29 May 1966, in different parts of Nigeria but especially in the north region, murdering 100,000 Igbo people (phases I and II). Now, it embarks on a land, air  and sea-borne invasion of Biafra, the Igbo homeland, with the British government, under the leadership of Harold Wilson, playing the central role in the campaign (http://re-thinkingafrica.blogspot.co.uk/2015/10/herbert-ekwe-ekwe-conquerors-concord-in.html).  

INDEED without British support, pointedly if not ironically 53 years before Brexit, the Igbo genocide, this crime against humanity, would probably not have occurred. It is extraordinary that the world has largely remained silent as Britain, for over one-half of a century, has designated and unrelentingly pursued the destruction of Igbo people, one of Africa’s most talented and enterprising peoples whose home is in southwestcentral Africa, 3150 miles away from Britain, as its critical path to control the destiny of  African peoples indefinitely.

This phase-III of the genocide stretches for 30 months during which 3 million Igbo are murdered. Harold Wilson coordinates the campaign from his offices and home at 10 Downing Street London, 3150 miles away from Biafra, facilitated on the ground in client-state Nigeria by Francis Cumming-Bruce, the British chief representative and proconsul. Cumming-Bruce liases expansively with key Nigerian genocidists in charge of the crime, right from the outset in May 1966, as well as the coterie of Fulani islamist/jihadist north region emirs, politicians and other leading public figures who Britain had arbitrarily handed over supreme overseeing political authority in October 1960 to manage Nigeria on Londons behalf ad infinitum as part of a bogus independence settlement.
(Francis Cumming-Bruce: on the ground British genocidist proconsul in Nigeria who supervises the Igbo genocide right from the outset, capitalising on his personal friendship with a number of north region Fulani islamist/jihadist emirs) 
THESE north region political forces had rigorously opposed the restoration of African independence which the Igbo had led for 30 years, beginning in the 1930s (http://re-thinkingafrica.blogspot.co.uk/2015/10/herbert-ekwe-ekwe-conquerors-concord-in.html). For the British, the Igbo genocide is punishment for the Igbo for daring to spearhead the campaign to terminate the control of its Nigeria rich-prized land”.  At the apogee of the Igbo slaughtering in 1968, Wilson, himself, insists that he “would accept half a million dead Biafrans if that was what it took” the Nigerian génocidaires to destroy the Igbo resistance to the genocide (Roger MorrisUncertain Greatness: Henry Kissinger and American Foreign Policy, London and New York: Quartet Books, 1977: 122). In his memoirs published in 1971, Wilson reveals that the Nigerian military, equipped zealously by Britain, expended more small arms ammunition in its campaign to achieve its annihilative goal in Biafra than the amount used by the British armed forces  “during the whole” of  the Second World War (Harold WilsonLabour Government, 1964-1970: A Personal Record,
London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1971: 630, added emphasis). Britain’s Lagos (Nigeria) diplomatic mission military advisor Robert Scott’s acknowledgement (at the height of the genocide, mid 1968- January 1970) that as the Nigerian genocidists unleashed their campaigns across Igbo cities, towns and villages, they were the “best defoliant agent known” (Sunday Telegraph, London, 11 January 1970) is equally gravely harrowing. 

TO COMPLEMENT this stupendous British military investment in the mass murder of Igbo people, the BBC world service, that state broadcaster funded by the British foreign office, assumes the chief publicity role to rationalise” the genocide to the worlds public. The BBC effectively becomes the external broadcasting corporation of the on the ground Nigerian prosecuting genocidists, displacing the rambling and ramshackle Voice of Nigeria, spewing out hate, racist and fraudulent features and analyses to discredit the Biafra freedom movement decades before the worlds attention is drawn to the realisation that fake news programming and broadcasts are an embodiment in the practices of quite a few news organisations (http://re-thinkingafrica.blogspot.co.uk/2015/12/bbc-nationalists-or-secessionists.html).

Definitive goal

Right from the outset as its invasion of Biafra is launched, genocidist Nigeria establishes on the ground and employs rape and abduction of Igbo girls and women and the public execution of Igbo boys and men as pivotal instruments in waging the campaign. Its ghoulish anthem of the genocide, broadcast uninterruptedly on state-owned Kaduna radio (shortwave transmission) and television and with editorial comments on the theme, regularly published in both state-owned New Nigerian (daily) newspaper and (Hausa) weekly Gaskiya Ta fi Kwabo during the period, has these lyrics in Hausa:

Mu je mu kashe nyamiri
Mu kashe maza su da yan maza su
Mu chi mata su da yan mata su
Mu kwashe kaya su 
(English translation: Let’s go murder the damned Igbo/Murder their men and boys/Rape their wives and daughters/Cart off their property)

This genocidist intent, particularly its empirically earmarked specifics, is unequivocally explicit and its overarching method sets the precedent of the savagery and barbarity that are the hallmarks of the genocide and subsequent genocides in Africa as Rwanda (1994), Darfur/Nuba Mountains/Blue Nile/South Kordofan (the Sudan, variously since 2004), and Democratic Republic of the Congo (since the late 1990s) attest.

AT THE HEIGHT of the Igbo genocide, beginning from the second-half of 1968 when thousands of Igbo children and older citizens die daily from starvation, one of the genocidist’s publicly-stated “weapons” in the prosecution of the crime as articulated by chief “theorist” Obafemi Awolowo himself, British Prime Minister Wilson as already stated, informs Clyde Ferguson (United States state department special coordinator for relief to Biafra) that he, Harold Wilson, “would accept half a million dead Biafrans if that was what it took” the Nigerian génocidaires to destroy the Igbo resistance to the genocide. Nigeria in fact ends up murdering 3 million Igbo – 2 and one-half million more than Wilson’s grim 500,000 Igbo-death wish.
(Harold Wilson: “would accept a half million dead Biafrans if that was what it took...”)
Furthermore, it is indeed a telling irony, given British support for Nigeria and the génocidaires’ strategy of rape and abduction of Igbo womanhood in Biafra, that it is in London, in June 2014, forty-seven years later, that the first international conference on “rape and sexual violence” in war, with emphasis on Africa (and particular focus on the Democratic Republic of the Congo), is hosted by none other than the British government in which foreign secretary of state William Hague describes rape as “‘one of the great mass crimes’ of modern times” (BBC News, 10 June 2014).
(William Hague ... 47 years later:  rape is one of the great mass crimes’ of modern times)
IN BIAFRA, beginning 6 July 1967, every Igbo town or village overrun by the Nigerian génocidaires becomes  a gruesome milestone in an inexorable march of rape, death, and destruction: Obollo Afo ... Obollo Eke ... Enuugwu-Ezike ... Opi ... Ukehe … Nkalagu ... Owgwu ... Abakaleke … Eha Amuufu ... Nsukka ... Enuugwu ... Agbaani ... Asaba ... Ogwashi-Ukwu ... Isele-Ukwu ... Onicha-Ugbo …Agbo …Umunede ... Onicha ... Nkpo …Oka ... Aba ... Udi ... Ehuugbo ...  Ehuugbo Road ... Okigwe ... Umuahia ... Owere ...Abagana ... Igwe Ocha ... Ahaoda ... Obiigbo ... Azumini ... Umu Ubani/Bonny ... Igwe Nga/Opobo ... Ugwuta ... Amasiri ... Akaeze ... Uzuakoli ... 
(Adesanya Adekunke... on the ground “boy boy” commander-1 for his “massas” Wilson & Cumming Bruce’s destroy Igbo people”-directive: unleashes sheer savagery in south Biafra, 1967-1968)
(Olusegun Obasanjo... on the ground “boy boy” genocidist commander-2 for his “massas” Wilson & Cumming Bruce’s destroy Igbo people”-directive: unleashes sheer savagery in south Biafra, 1968-1970)
(Obafemi Awolowo... on the ground Igbo genocide “theorist”, Igbo accounts/strategic assets dismantler & expropriator, £20.00-only genocidist pay-enforcer to survived Igbo family, 1967-1987)
CLEARLY invoking Nazi-style “search through population-round off-isolate-and-destroy”-tactics in overrun non-Igbo towns and cities such as Calabar, Oron, Ikot Ekpene, Uyo, Ogoja, Obubara, Obudu, Nkarasi and Eket, the genocidists meticulously profile Igbo nationals. Thousands of such profiled Igbo are shot at sight or marched off and later executed at city limits, forest firing-range sites, river banks, or at specifically dedicated genocidist-occupied barrack venues…

Incubation & manifestation

AS CONTEMPORARY Nigeria demonstrates, most graphically, as these lines are written, grounded genocidist advocates/“theorists”/operatives especially Obafemi Awolowo, Tony Enaharo, Hassan Katsina, Alison Ayida, Olusegun Obasanjo, Gbadomosi King, Umaru Dikko, Maitama Sule, Adesanya Adekunle, Muhammadu Buhari, Yakubu Gowon, Murtala Muhammed, Yakubu Danjuma, Ibrahim Haruna and Ibrahim Taiwo are perhaps just coming to terms with the realisation that their thoughts and deeds have incubated within their very own and become hauntingly cyclical across generations – DNA signature. This is precisely why survivors from these purveyors of state-directed mass slaughter, such as the Igbo, for example, must keep well away from the latter’s tent. Boko Haram and Fulani militant insurgents now ravaging swathes of territory across the north, northeast and northcentral regions and elsewhere in Nigeria are remarching along the paths first trodden by their parents/grandparents/greatgrandparents/Nigériãna-génocidaires, beginning 29 May 1966, 53 years ago to the day.

As for Nigeria’s genocide-prosecuting ally Britain, again 53 years to the day, it has, alas, caught up with Biafra, via Brexit, even if so far so incompetently as evident in the past three years of “negotiations”, to engage, critically, with exercising its own right to self-determination – in this instance, to determine whether or not it wishes to be part of the supranational state called the European Union after 44 years of membership. Unlike the Biafrans, who, 53 years ago, exercised this same right but in staggeringly existential circumstances, Britain hasn’t sought Brexit from the European Union because it has been threatened or subjected to the crime of genocide by the latter nor indeed by any individual member state of the union such as Germany, Italy or France. On the contrary. Similarly, the 5 million constituent Scottish people in Britain do not, 53 years after Biafra, currently seek to exercise their right to self-determination from Britain because they have been threatened or subjected to the crime of genocide by Britain. Not at all. 

JUST as the Biafrans, 53 years ago, the underlying awareness by the British, as a whole, collectively, or the Scots, separately, is that this right to self-determination is inalienable and its exercise by any people across the world is not dependent  on prevailing circumstance(s).

Biafra flag on the ascent

SO, despite the the unflinching 53 years of British support for the prosecution of the Igbo genocide, despite the sheer savagery of the Nigeria genocidist regime’s military murder of 3.1 million Igbo people or 25 per cent of the Igbo population during phases I-III of the genocide (29 May 1966-12 January 1970) and tens of thousands of additional Igbo during phase-IV (since 13 January 1970 and continuing)  including the military/Boko Haram/Fulani militia murders of 3000 Igbo people carried out across Biafra since October 2015 under the Muhammadu Buhari regime, despite the unconscionable support of the Igbo genocide by Barack Hussein Obama, the first African American president in 233 years of the US republic (https://www.pambazuka.org/human-security/obama-must-tell-world-why-he-supported-igbo-genocide), the Igbo have emerged even more focused, steadfast, resilient. They have converted their strategic mission of Biafra independence restoration to a tactical tool which they employ almost effortlessly here and there with exponential impact locally and internationally. This is extraordinary. The Biafra Sun is on the ascent. Any referendum conducted in Biafra presently on the restoration-of-independence for this population of 50 million will result in a high 90 per cent score. Biafrans now dictate the terms of this long drawn-out journey. Biafrans are redefining the tenor of the march for freedom in Africa. They are reshaping African history in this great epoch of our time.

AND the freedom movement has done it, in these past 32 months, it must be stressed, without firing a single shot – either in defence or offence.

Immediate: boycott beef

Yet for the Igbo, the existential threat from genocidist Nigeria is still gravely high – this time posed by Fulani militia, mischievously tagged Fulani herdspeople” by the media in Nigeria. On the contrary, the Fulani militants are the cousin of Boko Haram and both have been created by the Fulani islamists/jihadists and are terrorist adjuncts of the genocidist Nigeria military. Both Fulani militia and Boko Haram are two of the five deadliest terrorists organisations in the world presently (see Institute for Economics & Peace, “Global Terror Index 2015”, http://economicsandpeace.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Global-Terrorism-Index-2015.pdf, accessed 17 November 2015).

THE Igbo have four urgent steps they must embark upon, right away, in response to the Fulani militia/“Fulani-‘herdspeople’-and-their-cows” genocide and islamist jihadist campaign in Biafra:

1. All Fulani “herdspeople and cows” must now leave all Biafra territory, east and west of the Oshimili River.

2. Igbo must henceforth boycott all beef and beef products emanating from the Fulani including, especially, those marketed throughout Biafra. Repeat: Don’t buy Fulani beef for either home consumption for self or family or for commercial purposes e.g. in cafés, hotels or restaurants or schools or hospitals... In the wake of seizure of stretches of Biafran land by this militia presently, islamist Fulani beef is toxic, not fit for purpose. The red-line has been crossed. For every one pound weight of islamist Fulani beef/beef product bought by a Biafran, the purchase adds approximately one British-pound sterling equivalent to the islamist Fulani genocidist treasury that enables the jihadist to purchase the next AK47 assault rifle, the next clutch of grenades, the next suicide belt, the next cache of explosives, and plan the next assault and seizure of Biafran territory. So,  one must never be a party to their own annihilation. The knock-on effect of this immediate boycott of Fulani beef is that the Fulani militia/“herdspeople” will have no other realistic choice but withdraw their “cows” from Biafra when no longer able to be “sold” for beef/beef products, at once blowing the cover of the genocidists’ advance territorial occupying-positioning for the envisaged jihadist take-over.

3. All Igbo in the diaspora in Nigeria especially those living in Lagos/west Nigeria and in the Abuja region must join in this “Don’t buy Fulani beef for either home consumption for self or family or for commercial purposes e.g. in cafés, hotels or restaurants...” immediately. No Igbo person is exempt from participating in this historic response. It cannot be overstated: one must never be a party to their own annihilation.

4. It is now a challenge to Biafran livestock/animal husbandry farmers and experts to expand the growth and management of efi-Igbo to offset any loss in beef availability in Biafra from this boycott. Given the expected specialist skill in the country, Biafra can establish beef self-sufficiency within five years and embark on exporting the product to other parts of Africa and the world. In the meantime, people can turn to sheep, goat, chicken and fish for their protein requirement.
(John Coltrane Quartet, “Consequences” – 4th movement in First Meditations {for Quartet} [personnel: Coltrane, tenor saxophone; McCoy Tyner, piano; Jimmy Garrison, bass; Elvin Jones, drums; recorded: Van Gelder Studio, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, US, 2 November 1965])

******Herbert Ekwe-Ekwe’s recently published books on the Igbo genocide are The longest genocide – since 29 May 1966 (2019) and co-author, with Lakeson Okwuonicha, Why #DonaldTrump is #great for #Africa (2018)

Twitter @HerbertEkweEkwe










Wednesday, 3 July 2019

91st birthday of Theophilus Enwezor Nzegwu

(Born 3 July 1928, Onicha, Biafra)
Herbert Ekwe-Ekwe

DISTINGUISHED electrical engineer, academic, air force pilotokee nwoke mmadu

electrical engineer: plays key role in expanded electrification programme in Igwe Ocha, Biafra’s Oshimili Delta, and elsewhere in Biafra, and Nigeria, in the early 1950s on return from the United States where he had studied at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

academic: particularly meritorious career at both Kumasi College of Technology School of Engineering (now Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology), Ghana, 1955-1958, and Royal Air Force Halton School of Technical Training, England, where he is flying instructor, 1959-1964

air force pilot: Royal Air Force – commissioned flying officer, July 1959 and becomes flight lieutenant, 1962; pioneer air force pilot major and commander, Nigeria air force, September 1964
(Red Garland Quintet, “All mornin’ long [personnel: Garland, piano; Donald Bryd, trumpet; John Coltrane, tenor saxophone; George Joyner, bass; Art Taylordrums;  recorded: Van Gelder Studio, Hackensack, NJ, US, 15 November 1957]) 

Herbert Ekwe-Ekwe’s recently published books on the Igbo genocide are The longest genocide – since 29 May 1966 (2019) and co-author, with Lakeson Okwuonicha, of Why #DonaldTrump is #great for #Africa (2018)

Twitter @HerbertEkweEkwe

Monday, 1 July 2019

Nelson Mandela, catastrophic murders of Igbo people in South Africa, restoration-of-independence of Biafra

(Born 18 July 1918, Mvezo, South Africa)
Herbert Ekwe-Ekwe

ON THURSDAY 18 July 2019, South Africa, the African World and the rest of the globe will celebrate the 101st birthday of Nelson Mandela – lawyer, leader of the African restoration-of-independence movement that freed South Africa after 342 years of the pan-European conquest, occupation, and subjugation.

The commemoration of Mandela’s 101st birthday ironically occurs at a very depressing epoch for African peoples-centred students and scholars studying and researching South Africa. The latter have, in recent years, usually incredulously as one can imagine, given the inestimable support and goodwill rendered to the South African freedom movement from practically every region of the African World including Igbo people from Biafra, as hundreds of African émigrés in South Africa from Biafra, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zimbabwe and elsewhere from Africa are murdered in premeditated campaigns clearly organised by groupings in the country with tacit and at times active support from personages within the South Africa state ... Additionally, in this campaign, African émigrés’ residents and businesses have been destroyed and thousands of survivors sent into horrid South Africa refugee camps or forced to return to their various countries. 

ALL along, as this murder campaign rages, the South Africa state categorises this crime so quaintly and outrageously with the essentially sanitising euphemism, “xenophobic attacks”  an outrage of a designation readily picked up, re-packaged, and re-broadcast uncritically with relish across the world by the usual expressly anti-African lives’ broadcasters and commentators and other news organsations. This planned murdering campaign against African émigrés in South Africa, executed by organised South African death-squads, must be called by its name: murder; there must be no obfuscation in presenting this crime for what it is.

Catastrophe

Since February 2016, over 120 Igbo immigrants in South Africa, who had themselves fled the ongoing Igbo genocide in occupied Biafra by Fulani-led islamist/jihadist genocidist Nigeria, have been viciously murdered as part of this savage campaign against African émigrés across the country. Biafra will never forget this unleashed catastrophe on its people. On the contrary, the consequences of this trail of executions of Biafrans in South Africa will dictate the character of the future relationship between the restored-independent Biafra and South Africa. Surely, no one murders Igbo people and gets away with the crime.

ONCE AGAIN, assailed in a country whose state is often primed to make outlandish sanctimonious declarations on foreign policy, especially on the Middle East, but demonstrates such gross irresponsibility to protect the lives of African peoples from elsewhere domiciled within its borders, the Igbo, in South Africa, must now think seriously of relocating to other countries for their safety and well-being.
(Sonny Rollins Quartet, “Dance of the reed pipes” [personnel: Rollins, tenor saxophone; Don Cherry, pocket trumpet; Bob Cranshaw, bass; Billy Higgins, drums; recorded: live, Village Gate, New York, US, 27-30 July 1962])

Herbert Ekwe-Ekwe is the author of The longest genocide – since 29 May 1966 (2019) and co-author, with Lakeson Okwuonicha, of Why #DonaldTrump is #great for #Africa (2018) 
Twitter @HerbertEkweEkwe










Wednesday, 26 June 2019

106th birthday of Aimé Césaire

(Born 26 June 1913, Basse-Pointe, Martinique)
Herbert Ekwe-Ekwe

POET, playwright, essayist, cofounder, with Léopold Sédar Senghor and Léon-Gontram Damas, of the “negritude” movement in Paris in the 1930s-1940s; of Igbo descent,***** one of the preeminent intellectuals of African World affirmation in the wake of 500 years of pan-European enslavement of African peoples, conquest and occupation of Africa; author of classics Cahier d’un retour au pays natal, 1939 (English: Notebook of a Return to the Native Land, 1956), 
Discours sur le colonialisme, 1950 (English: Discourse on Colonialism, 1953), Toussaint Louverture: La Révolution française et le problème colonial, 1960 (study on Toussaint L’Ouverturethe Haitian restoration-of-independence revolutionary), Une Saison au Congo, 1966 (English: A Season in the Congo, 1968 – play on life and times of Patrice Lumumba, 1950s/early 1960s’ leader of the restoration-of-independence movement in the Congo, then occupied by Belgium where the king, Leopold II, and the Belgian state, had committed an expansive genocide against constituent African peoples therein between 1878 and 1908 murdering 13 million Africans) and Une Tempête, 1969 (English: A Tempest, 1986 – a play, African peoples-centred rereading of Shakespeare’s The Tempest); The Tragedy of King Christoph (2015) – a play on Henri Christoph, general in Toussaint’s Haitian restoration-of-independence army who later declares himself king in north Haiti and exercises an oppressive rule on the peopleteacher of and major influence on Frantz Fanon, fellow Martinican and celebrated freedom scholar and author of The Wretched of the Earth.

(*****Chukwuma AzuonyeIgbo Names in the Nominal Roll of Amelié, An Early 19th Century Slave Ship from Martinique: Reconstructions, Interpretations and Inferences”, Africana Studies Faculty Publication Series, Paper 8, 1990, p. 1. {Thanks to Chidi Osuagwu for kindly citing this reference in his communication with me, Wednesday 26 June 2019 [HE-E].})
(John Coltrane Septet, “Dahomey dance” [personnel: Coltrane, tenor saxophone, Freddie Hubbard, trumpet; Eric Dolphy, alto saxophone; McCoy Tyner, piano; Reggie Workman, bass; Art Davis, bass; Elvin Jones, drums; recorded: A&R Studios, New York, US, 25 May 1961])

Herbert Ekwe-Ekwe is the author of The longest genocide – since 29 May 1966 (2019) and co-author, with Lakeson Okwuonicha, of Why #DonaldTrump is #great for #Africa (2018) 
Twitter @HerbertEkweEkwe